The kanji and the word are exactly the same. That means they share meanings as well.
To be exact, 丼 refers to a chinaware bowl that's bigger and sturdier than your ordinary rice bowl. It's often used for one-bowl dishes like katsudon, gyūdon, poke, but also noodle soups like ramen!
You learned the どん reading for this kanji. This reading is just an extension of that, coming out to どんぶり. You can remember the ぶり part because you know what your favorite rice bowl is... it's a brie (ぶり) cheese rice bowl. Slightly unorthodox, but quite delicious!
I'd like to buy some tableware in America, like Japanese rice bowls, but I can't find the right size!
Hey, there was dried-up natto in that rice bowl!
You're eating a crab bowl in the morning? You're a real morning person, aren't you?